Asia Pacific Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences Asia Pacific Journal Social Behavioral Science en-US Copyright holder is the Bukidnon State University. (Dr. Bevery B. Bicar) Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Unexpected Effects of Gender Equality in Education to Gender Disparities in Economic Participation: Global Evidences <em>This study explored on the parity in educational attainment and economic participation and opportunities among genders through data mining, a process used to uncover characteristics of phenomena and the relationship between them. The pattern of gender parity was drawn from the data set of World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index of 2015. The findings, based on the patterns generated, reveal no relationship between the equality in educational attainment and economic participation and opportunities among men and women. This indicates that educational attainment and success of women does not automatically mean higher economic status or greater political participation. It was deduced further that equality in both genders in terms of educational attainment instead, creates disparity in the economic opportunities of women. The factors of the disparity include gender stereotyping in the labor market; discriminatory practices in the workplace; and cultural, ethnic, and religious norms that draw attention to gender complementarity rather than gender equity.</em> Zeny L. Maureal, Lezel Mernilo Tutanes, Ann Sheila C Del Rosario (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:31:35 +0000 Reconsidering Gender and Migration: An Exploratory Study in Rural Village Cambodian Women <p align="center">Abstract</p><p>Life in rural Cambodia is difficult and rural women face issues such as gender-based violence, limited educational opportunities, and pressure to work while maintaining domestic roles.  The current exploratory study examines the attitudes of rural Cambodian women (<em>n</em> = 48), framed within in context of migration to Thailand, with particular focus on the areas of community ailments, migration, and educational opportunities.  Descriptive statistics indicate the persistence of an unhealthy community, with participants acknowledging the problems of domestic violence, crime, drug use, alcohol use, and depression.  The data suggest some improvement in Cambodia, though participants nonetheless recognized working in Thailand as a competing option to the rural village life.  Education is viewed positively, with evidence suggesting that the perceived benefits of education do not outweigh the economic push factors.  As incoming aid money increases, before data will be helpful in guiding conclusions and informing decision making. Conclusions reflect a nuanced perspective of female participants’ agency given their challenging situation, reflecting informed decision making with informal risk analysis. </p><p><em>Keywords</em>: Cambodia, women, rural, migration, education</p> Robert W. Spires (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:32:26 +0000 The Learning Experiences of Filipino Pre-service Teachers in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Program of a Thai Elementary School <p>Internationalization and ASEAN integration has lead pre service teachers to explore the world of teaching abroad.  The pre-service teachers have experienced many learning opportunities and challenges in a foreign country.  The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of Filipino pre-service in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics STEM Program of Anubanchonburi School Thailand. The 17 participants ranging from 19-21 years old from Bukidnon State University, Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, Philippines were interviewed and 8 of them attended the focus group discussion. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes of their learning experiences: (1) travel exposures; (2) pedagogical learning; (3) social and multicultural learning, (4) personal and professional learning; and (5) technological learning.  This study provides insights to administrators, pre-service teaching supervisors, and educators to increase the opportunities of pre-service teachers to be exposed to a multicultural classroom and become globally competent.  This will provide avenues to forge stronger collaboration and partnerships with stakeholders in the country and abroad.</p><p> </p><p>Key words: <em>internationalization</em>, <em>pre-service teachers, learning experiences, STEM Program</em></p> Lora E. Anar, Rebecca Jane Petersen, Albert Villanca (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:33:47 +0000 Responsiveness Index for the Development of the 21st Century Abilities and Competencies <p>There is no competency activity index currently available that can objectively assess the skills and competencies of students. The main objective of this study was to develop a responsiveness index to assess the development of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century abilities and competencies in the<strong> </strong>Philippine school systems in the teaching of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century skills. Specifically, it intends to:  identify the major dimensions of the responsiveness index and its key indicators; determine the optimal weight for each dimension and key indicators; determine the variables and its influence to the major dimensions, and validate the responsiveness index derived from a pilot sample.</p><p>It was conducted in the Province of Bukidnon and its neighboring provinces of Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao City and Lanao del Sur last School Year 2014-2015. The Delphi approach and other statistical tools were utilized to gather and analyze the data. Findings showed the four major dimensions of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century skills as ways of thinking, ways of working, tools for working and skills for living with respective key indicators. Optimal weights were also determined per dimensions and its respective key indicators. It was also found out that variables like age, gender, educational attainment, employment status and employment agency influence the four dimensions. The responsiveness index was validated by one thousand respondents coming from different parts of the educational sector, both public and private as well as different stakeholders and different professions using a systematic random sampling.</p><p>     The developed responsiveness index is an easy, valid, and responsive to assess 21st     -century abilities and competencies and can be useful to teachers, school leaders, and educational policy makers in the teaching and development of 21st Century abilities and competencies. </p> Elvira B. Sumbalan, Catherine D Libertad, Jocelyn D Lapay (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:34:26 +0000 A Pragmatic Study on Speech Acts in Bukidnon Rituals <p>This study attempted to present a pragmatic description of Bukidnon rituals, in particular, the speech acts, sequential organization and cultural norms of this indigenous discourse.&nbsp; The results indicated that the most frequently performed speech acts in Bukidnon rituals were directives and representatives. The former were attempts of the speaker (ritualists) to get the addressee(s) ( Supreme ruler,deities and/or participants of the ritual) to do something, i.e. to heed orders or grant requests. When issuing directives, Bukidnons are explicit and straightforward. They believe that the stronger the directive, the better are the chances for positive responses. Representatives were also prevalent specifically involving claims, affirmation, or declaration. Like other discourses, Bukidnon rituals were found to follow a distinct pattern beginning with <em>Panawagtawag</em> (call) or <em>Pandalawit </em>(invitation). &nbsp;The spiritual guardians, custodians, and the supreme God, <em>Magbabaya</em> were&nbsp; invoked to bless and guide the ritualists and the participants during the rituals.&nbsp; The invitation part (<em>pandalawit</em>) was followed by a series of requests interspersed with representatives specifically information, description and explanation. The prayers of requests were further reinforced with the offering and partaking (<em>panampulo</em>t) of sacrificial animals. As a distinct form of religious discourse, rituals involve customary requirements expressive of the distinct ethnocultural identity of this speech community.&nbsp; It is through a pragmatic analysis of the speech acts that the readers are able to see ritual as an authentic communicative event.</p> Hazel Jean M Abejuela (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:35:06 +0000 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RESEARCH CULTURE INDEX IN THE ACADEME <p>This study reports on the development and validation of an instrument for measuring the research culture of different academic institutions. The Research Culture Index (RCI) is an instrument shows the sum of different dimensions namely research competency, research process and research productivity. There were 535 respondents which included the administrators, researchers, and faculty members from six State Universities and Colleges in Region. The validation was done through Delphi method and underwent reliability test using Cronbach Alpha, yielding high-reliability result of 0.8 for two trials. The study revealed that among the three dimensions of the Research Culture Index, research competency significantly influenced the outcome of RCI in the academe as reflected by its high optimal weight. The three prime universities in Region X namely: Mindanao State of Science and Technology; Bukidnon State University and Central Mindanao University, have high research culture index. Demographic data further shows that age has a significant bearing on dimension 1: research competency of the faculty, while the academic rank of the faculty has a significant bearing on the two dimensions namely, research competency, and research process. <strong></strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>Keywords:<strong> </strong><em>Research Culture Index (RCI), Research Competency, Research Process,  Research Productivity<strong></strong></em></p> Carina Joane Villareal Barroso (Author) ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 05:35:50 +0000