Soil Quality, Crop Growth, and Productivity of Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. and Brassica rapa L. Using Different Growing Media Mixtures for Square-Foot Gardening in Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, Philippines

  • Desiree Christine Arbutante Bukidnon State University, Malaybalay City, Philippines
  • Jennifer Barroso Bukidnon State University
  • Jovelin Lapates Bukidnon State University
  • Lynnette Ejem Bukidnon State University, Malaybalay City, Philippines
Keywords: Soil quality, plant growth, crop productivity, organic urban gardening, squarefoot gardening


Organic manures have long been used by farmers for the availability of nutrients forplant growth, and to improve soil quality. But the kind and amount of organic media mostbeneficial to the growth of kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and pechay (Brassica rapaL.) are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of growing media mixtures (GMM)with different amounts of chicken manure and vermicast on the growth and productivityof the selected vegetables. The study aimed to assess the quality of the GMM with differentamounts of chicken manure and vermicast in terms of pH, organic matter, total nitrogen,extractable phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, determine the effect of differentGMM on the growth and productivity of I. aquatica and B. rapa in terms of average plantheight, leaf width, the number of leaves, and fresh weight of plants, and determine thebest-growing media mixtures for the growth and productivity of the experimental plants.Results show that the growing media mixture with optimum pH range, high OM, N, P,and K contents have biological and nutrient essential for plant growth and productivity.T10 yielded kangkong with the broadest leaf width, the greatest number of leaves, andheaviest fresh weight, while T9 produced the tallest, broadest leaf, greatest number ofleaves, and heaviest pechay. Overall, T10 is the best growing media for kangkong. WhereasT9 is optimum for cultivating pechay. Results indicated that chicken manure and vermicastenriched growing media mixture build healthy soil for improved growth and productivityof kangkong and pechay.


Abbey, T. K., Essiah, J.W., Alhassan, A., Fometu,
E., Ameyibor, K., & Wiredu, M. B. (2001).
Integrate science for senior secondary school.
Unimax MacMillan Ltd. Ring Road South
Industrial Area Accra-North Ghana. (pp.
Agricultural Training Institute. (2011). RA
10068 Implementing rules and regulations.
Agricultural Training Institute. Philippines.
Amara, D. G., & Mourad, S. M. (2013). Influence
of organic manure on the vegetative growth
and tuber production of potato (Solanum
tuberosum L varspunta) in a Sahara desert
region. International Journal of Agriculture
and Crop Sciences, 22, 2724-2731.
Atiyeh, R. M., Subler, S., Edwards, C. A.,
Bachman, G., Metzger, J. D., & Shuster,
W. (2000). Effects of vermicomposts and
composts on plant growth in horticultural
container media and soil. Pedobiologia,
44(5), 579-590.
Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Research. (2010). Fact Sheet no. 6 of Project
ACIAR PC/2010/063. Compiled by G.
Lyons, G. Dean, R. Goebel, , M. Taylor, &
R. Kiata, Layout by S. Tukidia produced
for the Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research (ACIAR) funded
activity “Improving soil health, agricultural productivity and food security on atolls:
Corcoran, M.P., Kettle, P.H., & O’Callaghan,
C. (2017). Green shoots in vacant plots?
Urban agriculture and austerity in postcrash
Ireland. ACME, 16, 305–331.
Doran, J.W., & Zeiss, M.R. (2000). Soil health
and sustainability: Managing the biotic
component of soil quality. Applied Soil
Ecology, 15, 2-11.
Dikinya O., & Mufwanzala, N. (2010). Chicken
manure-enhanced soil fertility and
productivity: Effects of application rates. J.
Soil Sci. Environ. Manag., 3(1), 46–54.
Espinosa Seguí, A.E., Mackiewicz, B., & Rosol,
M. (2017). From leisure to necessity: Urban
allotments in Alicante Province, Spain in
times of crisis. ACME, 16, 276–304.
Fenton, M., Albers, C., & Ketterings, Q. (2020,
November 16). Agronomy Fact Sheet
Series Fact Sheet 41. Connell University
Cooperative Extension. Retrieved from
Food and Agriculture Organization.
(2020, August 23). Crop production
manual. Appia. Retrieved from https://
Gonzales, L. M. R., Caralde, R. A., & Aban, M.
(2015). Response of Pechay (Brassica napus
L.) to different levels of compost fertilizer.
International Journal of Scientific and
Research Publications, 5, 2.
Han, S. H., An, J. Y., Hwang, J., Kim, S. B., & Park,
B. B. (2016). The effects of organic manure
and chemical fertilizer on the growth and
nutrient concentrations of yellow poplar
(Liriodendron tulipifera Lin.) in a nursery
system. Forest Science and Technology,
12(3), 137–143.