Asia Pacific Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS Asia Pacific Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences Bukidnon State University en-US Asia Pacific Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences 1656-5207 Copyright holder is the Bukidnon State University. Risk Assessment of Basic Social Services in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=228 <p>This study conducted a risk assessment and formulated a model to measure the disaster risk reduction of selected flood-prone and landslide-prone barangays in the Province of Bukidnon.&nbsp; It specifically focused on the basic social services on food, water, electricity, and health.&nbsp; Primary and secondary data were used to establish hazard and population density maps to determine the exposure of communities during disasters.&nbsp; Further, the adaptive capacity (CA) of a local government unit (LGU)to respond to disasters was computed. Key findings revealed that exposed communities could be classified into various levels of susceptibility.&nbsp; Using the model, results revealed that the reduction of risk depends on the adaptive capacities and risks of LGUs.&nbsp; Further, efficiency to address risk is a ratio between the adaptive capacity and risk.&nbsp; Thus, the higher the adaptive capacity of LGUs would mean better efficiency in disaster risk reduction.</p> Joy M Mirasol Marlon S Frias Mariza P Manlagaylay Desiree A Barroso ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 1 14 Governance Issues on Disaster Risk Reduction of LGUs’s Controlled Social Services of Selected Barangays in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=229 <p>Disaster Risk Reduction Management (DRRM) concepts are difficult to get across to the community leaders, especially to the residents themselves. In the past,&nbsp; competence in disaster preparedness cannot take off in the barangay level due to an apparent lack of education as noted by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG). Local government units (LGUs) recognize the importance of disaster risk reduction management. However, issues on policies that have bearing on the pre- implementation, implementation, and post-implementation activities are deemed important.&nbsp;&nbsp; Thus,&nbsp; the study explored the governance issues on disaster risk reduction of local government units’ basic social services of selected barangays in the Province of Bukidnon. Focus Group Discussion (FGD), interviews, and checklist were used in gathering the data to answer the following objectives: (1) assess the pre-implementation, during the implementation, and post-implementation of the disaster risk reduction management policies focusing on the basic social services such as food, water, electricity, and health in the identified barangays; (2) identify issues on the implementation of the DRRM based on the pillars of good governance; and (3) recommend appropriate measures to respond to governance issues. Findings reveal that the local government units of the Province of Bukidnon showed preparedness in disaster risk reduction in pre-implementation, during the implementation, and post-implementation of the disaster risk reduction management policies.&nbsp; Governance issues were identified, namely, distribution of basic services, relocation site, list of households in the community, and accessibility of information. However, appropriate measures were recommended to respond to the identified governance issues.</p> Estela C Itaas Joy M Mirasol Desiree A Barroso Marlon s Frias Mariza P Manlagaylay ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 15 28 Analyzing the Risks Affecting the School-aged Children in Disaster-Prone Areas in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=230 <p>The school-aged children are among the vulnerable sectors in society in times of natural as well as anthropogenic calamities. This study described the hazards, exposures, and vulnerabilities of elementary school learners in the disaster-prone areas in the Province of Bukidnon, Philippines. It determined the effects of disasters, particularly landslide and flood to the school-aged children in terms of their school performance.&nbsp; It also ascertained the adaptive and capacity-building strategies of these learners during landslide and flood. Six schools located in disaster-prone areas were chosen as the locale of the study with 188 school-aged children, six principals, teachers, and parents as participants of the study. The study found that flash flood, unsafe school buildings, and excessive runoff waters in school grounds led to cancellation of classes and caused damages to infrastructures and school properties - which have implications for the performance of school children. Remediation and other alternative delivery modes helped learners cope with missed classes. Drills, lifesaving skills, and parents’ support for technological gadgets like cell phones improved learners’ adaptive capacities to prepare for disasters. However, the study found limited support for implementing disaster preparedness and mitigation activities for learners in rural areas. Promoting access, quality, and sustained DRRM activities for learners in these schools could enhance the adaptive capacities of learners and mitigate the risks and hazards, affecting them.</p> Beverly B Bicar Lora E Añar Maribel G Valdez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 29 42 Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Mechanisms for School-Aged Children in Flood and Landslide Vulnerable Areas in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=231 <p>This study assessed the disaster risk reduction and management mechanisms of schools in the province of Bukidnon, analyzed the adequacy and gaps of the disaster risk reduction and management mechanisms implemented in schools, and proposed a model of school-based disaster risk reduction and management network. The findings showed that the five priority actions established by the Hyogo Framework for Action on which the Department of Education Manual was anchored were not substantially achieved. Moreover, the DRRM mechanisms on disaster prevention, disaster mitigation, and disaster preparedness were fairly adequate, while disaster preparedness was somewhat adequate. Based on the findings, an integrated model of school-based disaster risk reduction and management (SBDRRM) network of vulnerable communities was proposed emphasizing a bottom-up approach, three-focal point system representing the susceptible areas under the school divisions of Bukidnon, Malaybalay and Valencia, multisectoral collaboration, and inclusion of DRRM in school curricula.</p> Hazel Jean M Abejuela Lynnette A Ejem Ann Sheila C del Rosario ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 43 60 Development of Disaster Risk Management and Mitigation Extension Program for School-Aged Children in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=232 <p>Existing and emerging disaster-risks for school-aged children served as the primary consideration for the conceptualization of this study. Using the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, this study analyzed the needs of the clientele, designed, and developed a DRRM extension program for school-aged children, and implemented and evaluated the program. The study involved school administrators, teachers, parents and their school-aged children in five landslide and earthquake-prone barangays in Bukidnon. Data were gathered through questionnaires, interviews, and FGDs. The needs were the basis for the design and development of the DRRM extension program for school- aged children. The training program included lessons on introduction to DRRM; DRRM in school, child-centered DRRM and CEPC, conduct of drill, and, managing emergencies and disasters.</p> Rachel Joan T Toledo Omar A Tantoy Rhondell M Paraiso ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 61 76 Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Flood and Landslide-Prone Areas: Exploring the Lived Experiences of Residents in Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=233 <p>Appropriate implementation of community-based disaster risk management is desirable as flooding and landslide in Bukidnon is becoming more hazardous intensified by climate change, poor drainage, and expanding agricultural industries. The lived experiences of the residents in flood and landslide-prone areas in the province during the year 2017-2018 provides the empirical basis for strategies to enhance the implementation of Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM). The study utilized an interpretive phenomenological research method. The instruments used in the study were the motive questions for the focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interview (KII) guide questions. There were one hundred fifty (150) participants coming from the six (6) barangays of the (5) five municipalities identified as prone to flooding and landslide. Findings showed that the existing risk management practiced by the residents and the local government unit (LGU) is the top-bottom approach. The coping strategies used were risk communication and relief assistance from LGU. A comparison of the existing approach to the Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) approach revealed that in CBDRM, a community can be organized to experience a ‘real community’ participation to avoid and reduce the damage caused by flooding and landslide. The involvement of vulnerable people with the determination of roles and responsibilities before, during, and after flooding and landslides would make them realize the significance of their active participation for resiliency. Thus, a CBDRM model was developed so that at-risk communities can actively engage in the identification, planning, analysis, monitoring, and evaluation of disaster risks to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities. An extension activity is proposed to implement the CBDRM model.</p> Zita I Dales Elson P Salvan Apolinar T Paulican ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 77 92 Psychological Risk Assessment of Residents in Flood/Landslide-Prone Areas in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=234 <p>Natural disasters like floods and landslides are potential threats to both the physical <br>and emotional well-being of individuals. The psychological effect could influence the way people look at themselves and adapt to any untoward incidence in the future. The study aimed to assess the residents’ psychological state in terms of depression, anxiety, and stress in the aftermath of a disaster. Also, it assessed the adaptive capacity of affected populations to disaster; and recommended a program for disaster mitigation on psychological resilience at the barangay level. Questionnaires were used to gather data on disaster risk reduction elements, which determined the hazard, exposure, and vulnerability of the populations. With these variables, the risk and the adaptive capacity were computed. The adopted 42-item DASS questionnaire of Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) measures the three subscales of psychological health conditions which are depression, anxiety, and stress. Results showed that most of the respondents are on the normal scale in the three subscales. Of the three negative emotional states, the anxiety scale was consistently higher than depression and stress scales among respondents of the five barangays. The risk assessment of the five barangays showed that among the barangays, Barangay Batangan had the highest hazard and exposure. However, vulnerability was low in this barangay due to the high readiness factor, thus resulting in a higher adaptive capacity compared to the other four barangays.</p> Marites M Egar Joan M Recente Desiree C Arbutante ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 93 106 Health Risk Assessment of Residents in Disaster-Prone Areas in the Province of Bukidnon http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=235 <p>The increasing incidence of calamity calls for the development of modeling and prediction indicators to assess the impact of disaster on health. The study evaluated the health risk of residents through the development and validation of the DRR mathematical model for health in disaster-prone areas in the Province of Bukidnon. The model measured the extent of the hazard, exposure, vulnerabilities, adaptive capacity, and disaster risk reduction of residents affected by the disaster. This study focused on five disaster-prone barangays in Bukidnon.Using the mixed-method design, results revealed that themes and derived meanings from literature created qualitative risk estimation and disaster risk reduction model for health. The DRR parameter was found to be consistent with the observations conducted in various barangays in Bukidnon. The application of DRR model revealed that Barangay Batangan has the highest risk reduction despite having the highest magnitude of risk among the five barangays.</p> Carina Joane V Barroso Ma. Algerica T Cuenco ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 107 120 Hydrologic Model for Flooding in Manupali Watershed and Its Implications to Land-Use Policies http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=236 <p>Flooding has become a recurring event in the Province of Bukidnon, causing severe destruction to houses, buildings, infrastructure, and livelihood. Since the province is not exempted in flooding events as an impact of typhoons, understanding the watershed hydrologic behavior is essential for vulnerability and risk assessment as to disaster preparedness and risk reduction. The study aims to analyze the hydrologic response of Manupali watershed through flood hazard maps, hydrologic, and hydraulic models. This paper presents the combination of geographic information system, high -resolution digital elevation model (DEM), land cover, observed hydro-meteorological data, and the combined hydrologic engineering center-hydrologic modeling system and river analysis system models. The hydrologic model assesses the relationship between rainfall and discharge of the watershed and the hydraulic model computes the flood depth and flow pattern in the floodplain. Upon calibration, the over-all performance of the hydrologic model was rated very good in its performance based on the standards set by Moriasi et al. (2015) with index values of 0.89, 0.75, 0.46. The calibrated hydrographs were used to produce flood hazard maps in 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100-year return periods, and assessed the number of flooded buildings in each flood hazard level per return period. The flood hazard maps may contribute to science-based land-use policy formulation, land-use zoning, planning, and management to mitigate extreme rainfall-induced flood risks in the affected barangays in the Manupali watershed.</p> Marie Angelie C Abendaño Joan M Recente Jennifer P Barroso ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 18 121 135 Hydrologic Model for Flooding in Manupali Watershed and Its Implications to Land-Use Policies http://research.buksu.edu.ph/index.php?journal=APJSBS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=213 <p>Flooding has become a recurring event in the Province of Bukidnon causing severe destruction to houses, buildings, infrastructure and livelihood. Since the province is not exempted to flooding events as an impact of the typhoon, understanding the watershed hydrologic behavior is essential for vulnerability and risk assessment as to disaster preparedness and risk reduction. The study aims to analyze the hydrologic response of Manupali watershed through flood hazard maps, hydrologic and hydraulic models. This paper presents the combination of geographic information system, high -resolution digital elevation model, land cover, observed hydro-meteorological data and the combined Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System and River Analysis System models. The hydrologic model assesses the relationship between rainfall and discharge of the watershed and the hydraulic model computes the flood depth and flow pattern in the floodplain. Upon calibration, the over-all performance of the hydrologic model is “very good” performance rating based on the standards set by Moriasi et.al. (2015) with index values of 0.89, 0.75, 0.46 for Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Model Efficiency, Percentage Bias, and Root Mean Square Error, respectively. The calibrated hydrographs were used to produce flood hazard maps in 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100-year return periods as well as determined the number of flooded buildings in each flood hazard level per return period. The flood hazard maps may contribute to science-based land-use policy formulation, land-use zoning, planning and management to mitigate extreme rainfall-induced flood risks in the affected Barangays in the Manupali watershed.</p> MARIE ANGELI CUBILLAS ABENDANO ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 18